Foundations of Multiplication


With our Foundations of Multiplication lesson plan, students learn about the three basic foundations for multiplication and complete many practice multiplication problems.

Included with this lesson are some adjustments or additions that you can make if you’d like, found in the “Options for Lesson” section of the Classroom Procedure page. One of the optional additions to this lesson is to have students use flash cards to practice their basic multiplication facts from 1 to 5. You can also play around the world using these flashcards.

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What our Foundations of Multiplication lesson plan includes

Lesson Objectives and Overview: Foundations of Multiplication teaches students about the basics of multiplication, inducing the three basic foundations of multiplication. This lesson is for students in 2nd grade and 3rd grade.

Classroom Procedure

Every lesson plan provides you with a classroom procedure page that outlines a step-by-step guide to follow. You do not have to follow the guide exactly. The guide helps you organize the lesson and details when to hand out worksheets. It also lists information in the blue box that you might find useful. You will find the lesson objectives, state standards, and number of class sessions the lesson should take to complete in this area. In addition, it describes the supplies you will need as well as what and how you need to prepare beforehand. The supplies you will need for this lesson include egg cartons, marbles, and the handouts. To prepare for this lesson ahead of time, you can gather the supplies, number the divots in the egg cartons, and copy the handouts.

Options for Lesson

Included with this lesson is an “Options for Lesson” section that lists a number of suggestions for activities to add to the lesson or substitutions for the ones already in the lesson. One optional addition to this lesson is to have students use flash cards to practice their basic multiplication facts from 1 to 5. You can also play around the world using these flashcards. Students can also arrange themselves as an array. As a fun outdoor activity, you could have students write their answers to different problems with chalk. Finally, as an adjustment to the egg carton activity, you could increase the numbers written inside the cartons for an extra challenge!

Teacher Notes

The teacher notes page includes lines that you can use to add your own notes as you’re preparing for this lesson.


Foundations of Multiplication

The Foundations of Multiplication lesson plan includes two pages of content. The lesson begins by stating that the foundation of multiplication is repeated addition. With multiplication, you create equal groups of objects and repeat those groups a specific number of times. For example, the repeated addition problem 4 + 4 + 4 is the same as the multiplication problem 4 x 3. We can also think of this as 3 groups of 4 objects, and of multiplication as an efficient way to express repeated addition.

The lesson then shows how to solve an example multiplication problem three ways: groups of objects, repeated addition, and arrays. Drawing objects in groups is an easy and effective way to illustrate multiplication because it visually shows you how to count the groups.

Arrays do two things in regards to multiplication. First, they visually demonstrate the multiplication fact. Second, they demonstrate the commutative property. You can arrange or group arrays in different ways, but the product (the number of dots) is always the same.

The lesson then shows how to solve two more example multiplication problems using the same three methods (groups of objects, repeated addition, and arrays).


The Foundations of Multiplication lesson plan includes four worksheets: an activity worksheet, a practice worksheet, a homework assignment, and a quiz. You can refer to the guide on the classroom procedure page to determine when to hand out each worksheet.


For the activity worksheet, students will work wither alone or in pairs. They will put marbles inside an egg carton that is labelled with numbers. Next, they will shake the egg carton and open it to see which numbers the marbles have landed on. They will then multiply those two numbers together and write it as a multiplication sentence. Finally, they will explain the strategy they used to solve each problem.


The practice worksheet asks students to solve various problems related to the lesson material. They will split pictures into groups and will then create multiplication sentences, repeated addition sentences, and arrays to represent each problem.


For the homework assignment, students will roll dice to fill in the missing numbers in the squares on the worksheet. They will then use those numbers to complete the multiplication problems.


This lesson includes a quiz that you can use to test your students’ knowledge and understanding of the lesson material. Students will answer 12 questions related to multiplication to complete the quiz.

Worksheet Answer Keys

This lesson plan includes answer keys for the practice worksheet, the homework assignment, and the quiz. If you choose to administer the lesson pages to your students via PDF, you will need to save a new file that omits these pages. Otherwise, you can simply print out the applicable pages and keep these as reference for yourself when grading assignments.

Additional information


2nd Grade, 3rd Grade


Math, Video

State Educational Standards

LB.Math.Content.2.OA.C.3, LB.Math.Content.2.OA.C.4, LB.Math.Content.3.OA.A.1

Lessons are aligned to meet the education objectives and goals of most states. For more information on your state objectives, contact your local Board of Education or Department of Education in your state.

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Jennifer O.

Great Material

Very well written and easy to understand.